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    Nowadays in Ukraine complex projects of different allotment are being constructed, including metropolitans, bridges, viaducts, underground complexes and pump storage plant. In this respect it is necessary to use new technique and technology of construction, providing high performance and safety level. So nowadays Kyivmetrobud use during construction

        - Trenchless (underground) method by means of shield mechanized tunneling systems;
        - Cut-and-cover with excavation equipment work;
        - Wall in trench method is divided into: ) tradition monolithic and ) separately standing section so called "Barettes;
        - Blasting method work with use of mobile drilling equipment;
        - Piled, bored and root piles;
        - Anchor clamping of ditches;
        - Well-drilling with fitting of well casing;
        - Artificial ground water lowering;
        - Earthwork in ditches of any complexity;
        - Chemical strengthening of grounds;
        - Construction of industrial buildings and facilities;
        - Construction of multistory building.

    Over recent years the effective technology for construction of metro stations with use of "wall in trench method has obtained a wide circulation. In addition, the wall width is 620 and 820 mm, depth is up to 35 mm and the section length ("catch) is 1800 ... 4200 m.
    "Wall in trench technology was successfully used for such projects in Kyiv City as NSC "Olimpiyskiy with length 320 lineal meters and during construction of Kyiv metro stations:

        - "Boryspilska metro station - 280 lineal meters;
        - "Vyrlytsia metro station - 215 lineal meters;
        - "Chervonyi Khutir metro station - 230 lineal meters;
        - "Demiivska metro station - 350 lineal meters;
        - "Golosiivska metro station - 680 lineal meters;
        - "Vasylkivska metro station - 1360 lineal meters.
        - "Vystavkovyi tsentr metro station - 745 lineal meters.

    In addition, the given technology is adopted:
        - During building of insertion/removal chambers in technological areas of metro
        - 250 lineal meters;
        - During building of insertion/removal chambers of main sewage conduit
        - 180 lineal meters.

    Frontal loaders XG953L (bucket capacity is 3,6 m3), ZL-50 (bucket capacity is 4,0 m3) and XG916A (bucket capacity is 2,4 m3) as well as excavating machines like KOMATSU PC2102 (bucket capacity is 0,25 m3), ISUZU (bucket capacity is 0,4 m3), JCB 220 (bucket capacity is 0,25 m3), JCB 8080 (bucket capacity is 0,2 m3), HYUNDAI R55W-7 (bucket capacity is 0,15 m3), KUBOTA KH-151 (bucket capacity is 0,125 m3) obtained a wide circulation for performance of earthwork.

    Ditches poling is made by means of bored piles, Larssen sheet piles and universal beams with wooden fixing. In order to make pile foundations, fasten slopes and embed bases of the ditches, 250 ... 600, 700, 800 and 1000 mm diameter and 35 m depth bored piles as well as 620 and 820 mm and depth up to 20 m root piles are applied. Fixing of ditch walls is made with the use of up to 260 mm diameter and up to 30 drilling depth anchor rods. During construction of ditches, in a number of Kyiv metro stations there were used 24 26 m anchors instead of their fixing by means of strutting. So it was put 320 anchors at "Demiivska station, 1080 ones at "Golosiivska station and 1540 ones at "Vasylkivska station.

    Well-drilling and trenching on application of "wall in trench method is made by means of drilling machine like Casagrande 6 (micropiles, anchor clamping and grounds jet consolidation), Casagrande 125 (root piles, 620 mm width "wall in trench), Casagrande 250 (620 mm and 820 mm width "wall in trench), KLEMM 806-3, KLEMM 806-D (anchor clamping).

    In order to provide excavation in unstable soils and rise of bearing capacity of bases under buildings and facilities foundations chemical soils stabilizer is used. Different solutions are injected into soils by means of injectors for this purpose. Soil softening cementation for processing is used if it is necessary to enhance reliability of underground constructions. Erection of bored piles and root piles serves to reinforcement of basis and foundations if it is necessary to stabilize persistent subsidence as well as to reinforcement of foundations, brickworks and contacts of foundation with bases during renewal of old buildings.

    Traditional shield tunneling is being constantly improved and new tunneling boring machines like WIRTH TB 8-628-n-ERW with 6,04 m diameter of front machine and HERRENKNECHT AG-TBM-6, 350 EPB with 6,15 m diameter are applied. Wayside tunnels of Kurenivsko-Chervonoarmiyska line of Kyiv metro from "Lybidska station to "Teremky station are built by means of these machines.

    The choice of high performance technology and equipment is of significant importance at repair, renewal and reinforcement of foundations of existing buildings. However, restoration works on preservation of monuments of architecture, renovating of buildings and facilities in restrained urban conditions require application of building technology affecting condition of buildings, reinforced foundation and basis under it. In this case the most useful technique for reinforcement often is fixing of small diameter root piles suitable for injection of foundations zones and for jet injection, and upon availability of stable foundations pile pressing.

    Small, highly productive drilling machines MINIFOR, KLEMM, HAUSHERR are used for works on foundations reinforcement. Their technical parameters admit drilling at any angle to depth down to 50 m. In addition, MINIFOR and KLEMM machines are not big allowing working from undergrounds or insides of buildings. In order to prevent dangerous strain of buildings and facilities under definite conditions the technically and economically justified alternative of technical solution is foundation reinforcement both by traditional methods (cementation, clay sealing, silicifying etc.), and by method of change of soft ground with soil-cement stone under jet grouting technology (Jet Grouting). However the used machines allow due to jet injection creating from soil-cement stone of vertical and inclined screens from separately standing ones or intercrossing piles (columns) with 0,5 1,2 diameter at necessary depth.

    "Kyivmetrobud PJSC uses Italian equipment for root piles of 0,6 1,5 m. The volume of such piles driving is up to 100 m3 per day. Injection reinforcement of sandy saturated soil was performed in construction of wayside tunnels from "Kharkivska station to "Boryspilska station as well as during reinforcement of soft grounds of "Demiivska ditch of Kyrenivsko-Chervonoarmiyska line. Different alternatives of construction of different purpose projects including underground project, require creation of new technology to which belongs technology of foundation enforcement with ground anchorage. Ground anchorage finds a wide spread in those cases when there is necessity of deep ditching in close proximity of existing buildings and facilities and providing stability of shifting hills, tall supporting walls.

    "Kyivmetrobud PJSC has different technological decisions on fixing of ground anchorage beginning from root ones to mechanical ones with different load rating. Root ground anchorage manufactured under technology of French firm Soletanche-Bachy and resisting load of 70 t and over has a wide spread in performance of work.

    So, Kyivmetrobud employees have created and implemented in Ukraine new technology and equipment allowing solving complicated problems of construction and restoration of important underground and overground projects of different purpose.
8, Prorizna Street, 01601 Kyiv City